Vol. 3, Issue 1 (2018)
A global health problem: “Dengue fever”
Author(s): Dr. Rajkumar Dhaked, Dr. Rakesh Parashar, Dr. Mahesh Chand Gupta, Dr. Dushti Dev Sahu
Abstract: Dengue is currently regarded globally as the most important mosquito-borne viral disease. The mosquito-borne viral disease dengue has become one of the worst nightmares of the country. Also called 'break bone fever' or 'dandy fever', it is caused by a family of viruses and is transmitted via Aedes mosquitoes. Dengue begins suddenly, with more benign symptoms at first but which may get severe with time. The symptoms of the disease show in three to seven, and sometimes fifteen, days. Recovery from dengue does not take over a week unless the condition gets severe. Mostly asymptomatic, if the condition gets critical, dengue can be life-threatening. The fever of dengue can attack anyone but those with weaker immunity are more prone to the disease getting severe when they are attacked. As it is caused by any of the four serotypes of the Aedes Aegypti, also called the yellow fever mosquito, dengue can happen multiple times to the same person. However, the person acquires immunity to the particular viral serotype which has already attacked him. A more severe form of dengue is dengue hemorrhagic fever. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimate that 400 million people are infected each year. Dengue fever is rare in the United States (U.S.), but around 100 cases are reported each year, mostly among people traveling from outside the country. Outbreaks have occurred in Texas, Florida, and Hawaii. Around 2.5 billion people, or 40 percent of the world's population, live in areas where there is a risk of dengue transmission. Dengue is endemic in at least 100 countries in Asia, the Pacific, the Americas, Africa, and the Caribbean. In India, according to the Directorate of National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme (NVBDCP), till December 2017 the total dengue cases in the country were 157220 with 250 deaths. Symptoms usually begin 4 to 7 days after the mosquito bite and typically last 3 to 10 days. Symptoms range from mild to severe. Severe symptoms include dengue shock syndrome (DSS) and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF). These require hospitalization. The best method of prevention is to avoid mosquito bites. Treatment is possible if diagnosis occurs before the patient develops DSS or DHF. The threat of Dengue is increasing day by day due to the increase in the number of breeding mosquitoes. It is very important to manage Dengue Fever very carefully otherwise it may lead to severe complications.